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比尔盖茨谈核电(巴菲特和比尔盖茨联手投资核电)

时间:2024-04-13 21:14热力值:来源:NDM编辑:热力哥
aucma冰箱冷藏温度怎么设置 独家专访比尔盖茨:我对核电投资下了大赌注

据 *** 5月8日报道,亿万富翁、微软联合创始人比尔·盖茨在接受独家专访时,谈论了核电和人工智能两大话题。盖茨透露,他建造了15年的核电站,将于2030年投产,希望能彻底改变美国核电未来。此外,他还认为人工智能会“改变游戏规则”。(消息来源:极目新闻)

实际上,2018年,盖茨先生在参加首届中国进博会期间,曾接受《中国核工业》杂志的独家专访,并授权杂志刊发他在会上的英文演讲全文,当时他的演讲和专访中就涉及核电发展的相关内容。一起来回顾一下吧:

在盖茨先生的演讲中,我们摘取了7个精彩观点:(原文附后)

1. 我对核电下了大赌注。我相信核能在满足世界清洁能源需求方面具有巨大潜力。但如果要迅速扩大规模,我们必须解决对安全、成本、核废料和核扩散的担忧。

2.中国的增长是世界历史上最令人难以置信的进步之一。这个国家的极端贫困率从66%下降到低于4%。

3.我将中国和印度的发展称为“前两波脱贫浪潮”。现在我们要在世界其他地方创造第三波脱贫浪潮。

4.我相信中国可以成为第三波脱贫浪潮的催化剂,原因有两个:中国在全球日益增强的影响力以及其新兴的创新能力。

5.我将在 *** 助开设“全球健康药物研发中心”总部。这是盖茨基金会,北京市 *** 和清华大学之间的合作结晶。它的独特之处在于它专注于研发针对发展中国家人群健康问题的新药。

6.研发中心将帮助我们克服全球健康面临的更大障碍之一——低收入人群无力购买,低收入人群所需药品的研究因此缺乏动力。

7.无论是能源、健康还是其他领域,我希望这种合作能够为未来更多的国际合作提供一种模式。

从2013年以来,比尔盖茨先生曾三次接受《中国核工业》杂志采访,并三次登上杂志的封面。2018年底,在盖茨先生的第三次专访中,他提出了很多核能发展的创新理念,比如要保证核能在无碳发电中的地位;比如核电不能只盯着生活和商业用电,重点应放在交通和工业用电等。

我们精选了专访中的独到观点:

1.对我来说,能够在核能等迷人的领域工作是一种幸运。我与很多才华横溢的人合作,研究那些能够产生巨大影响的想法。

2. 现在真正让我全心全意地扑在上面的是比尔及梅琳达·盖茨基金会和泰拉能源的工作。这些工作有一个共同点,就是都能有机会去解决人类目前面临的一些紧迫挑战。

3. 我们致力于提供所有人都能享受到的便宜、可靠的电力能源。我相信这项技术会像软件和疫苗一样产生革命性的影响。

4.更多地利用核能和可再生能源等清洁能源来发电阻止全球气候变化,需要个人和公共部门共同努力,开发和部署这些能源。

5. 全球核能事业不断发展,对应对全球气候变化,创造增长、发展的机遇非常重要。

6. 先进的计算机技术和现代工程工具已经克服了那些曾经阻止核能发挥其全部潜力的困难。

7.由于新的设计能够减少核废物和简化燃料循环的过程,核能的部署将会更快。

8.美国优先保证核能在无碳发电中的地位。许多国家的电价还没有包含空气污染以及气候变化带来的额外成本。

9.居民用电和商业用电仅占我们总能源消耗的三分之一左右,交通和工业过程消耗了另外三分之二能源。核能的另一个巨大潜力就是它在工业过程中减少碳排放的能力。

10. 中国迅速增长的对清洁能源的需求,使它成为未来新项目更具吸引力的市场。

专访比尔·盖茨:

拥抱核能,应对全球气候变化

记者:您曾作为微软公司联合创始人享誉世界,但近十年来更多的人开始了解您是作为泰拉能源主席的身份。由于您在能源领域的努力,去年您还获得了中国工程院外籍院士的头衔。从计算机跨界到能源,您如何看待这两种身份的转变?

盖茨先生:对我来说,能够在许多迷人的领域工作是一种幸运。在这些领域,我与很多才华横溢的人合作,研究那些能够产生巨大影响的想法。

当我在微软工作时,我和我的团队热衷于开发很棒的软件,这些软件授予人们使用。现在我依然会参与微软的一些工作,但是真正让我全心全意地扑在上面的是比尔及梅琳达·盖茨基金会和泰拉能源的工作。这些工作有一个共同点,就是都能有机会去解决人类目前面临的一些紧迫挑战。比如,通过泰拉能源,我们致力于提供所有人都能享受到的便宜、可靠的电力能源。我相信这项技术会像软件和疫苗一样产生革命性的影响。

记者:您曾在很多场合公开表示,发展核能是解决人类能源问题最清洁有效的一种方式,您也以实际行动支持了这一想法。那么,现今您如何看待核能的地位及其发展潜力?

盖茨先生:联合国 *** 间气候变化专门委员会(IPCC)在其最新的报告中,呼吁减少全球碳排放量。我们需要减少碳排放来阻止全球气候变化。实现这一目标的一个关键路径就是更多地利用核能和可再生能源等清洁能源来发电。这也需要个人和公共部门共同努力,开发和部署这些能源。

过去60年里,核能之所以能发挥如此重要的作用,很大程度上得益于国际合作。正是因为国际合作,目前全世界有10000多家医院在使用医用同位素;30个国家建造了400多座在运的核反应堆和245座正在运行的研究用反应堆。全球核能事业不断发展,对应对全球气候变化,创造增长、发展的机遇非常重要。

记者:要实现核电的进一步发展,您觉得整个行业还面临哪些方面的挑战?如何看待和实现核电的全球发展?

盖茨先生:目前很多国家正在部署先进的核技术。包括中国、印度和阿联酋在内的17个国家正在开工建设新的核电机组。

我乐观地认为,像泰拉能源行波堆这样先进的核能技术将有助于消除公众对核能安全性的一些担忧。先进的计算机技术和现代工程工具已经克服了那些曾经阻止核能发挥其全部潜力的困难,由于新的设计能够减少核废物和简化燃料循环的过程,核能的部署将会更快。

机构如何为出售的电力定价,也将影响世界某些地区核能的未来。美国目前优先保证核能在无碳发电中的地位。许多市场的电价还没有包含空气污染以及气候变化带来的额外成本。

核能的另一个巨大潜力就是它在工业过程中减少碳排放的能力。居民用电和商业用电仅占我们总能源消耗的三分之一左右,交通和工业过程消耗了另外三分之二能源。

记者:此次您参加中国国际进口博览会还做了主旨发言,是否可以谈一谈您此行的一些想法?今年中国已经陆续实现三代核电技术AP1000、EPR并网发电,您如何看待中国核电的发展前景?

盖茨先生:整个世界需要向着接近零温室气体排放的目标迈进,我认为核能将在这个过程中扮演关键角色。IPCC最近的一份报告提到,如果我们要避免气候变化的最坏后果,核能必须发挥更大的作用。中国迅速增长的对清洁能源的需求,使它成为未来新项目更具吸引力的市场。

比尔·盖茨专访英文原文

China Nuclear Industry Magazine QA

Q(Question):You are world famous as co-founder of Microsoft. In recent decades, people know more about your identification as the chairman of TerraPower. Last year, you were elected to Chinese Academy of Engineering for your endeavor in energy. What’s your opinion about the transformation of your two identities?

A(Answer):I’m very lucky that I get to work in many fascinating areas where I partner with brilliant people on ideas that could have a big impact. At Microsoft, we were passionate about writing great software that empowered people. I’m still involved with Microsoft today but am focusing full-time on my work with the Bill Melinda Gates Foundation as well as TerraPower. What all this work has in common is the opportunity to help people solve pressing challenges. For exle with TerraPower we are trying to help create affordable, reliable electricity for everyone. I believe it could be as transformative as software and vaccines have been.

Q:In many public occasions, you have said that nuclear is the cleanest and most efficient way to solve the energy problem. Also,you supported the idea with practical action. Nowadays, what do you think the role of nuclear energy played in contemporary energy development? What is your view on further potential of nuclear power?

A:In the latest IPCC report, the call to action was clear. We need to reduce carbon emissions to stop climate change. One key way to do that is to generate more power with clean sources like nuclear and renewables. That will require the private and public sectors to work together on developing and deploying these sources.

International cooperation is what has allowed nuclear energy to play such an important role over the past 60 years. It led to the use of medical isotopes in 10,000 hospitals worldwide. It aided 30 countries in developing more than 400 operational nuclear power reactors and 245 operational research reactors. Continued global progress on nuclear energy is important for fighting climate change and creating opportunities for growth and development.

Q:To push the nuclear technology to further development, what are the challenges you think we will meet? Meanwhile, in order to make nuclear industry to achieve a global development, what should we do to mitigate these problems?

A:Advancing nuclear technology is being deployed. New nuclear construction is underway in 17 countries including China, India and the UAE.

I’m optimistic that advanced technologies like TerraPower’s traveling wave reactor will help overcome some public concerns about nuclear power. Advanced computing and modern engineering tools have closed gaps that made it difficult for nuclear technology to achieve its full potential. Nuclear deployment will take place even faster as new designs reduce waste and simplify the fuel cycle.

How utilities choose to price the power they sell will also affect the future of nuclear energy in some parts of the world. In the U.S., it is a priority right now to preserve nuclear’s role in carbon free electricity generation. The cost of electricity in many markets does not reflect the externalized costs of air pollution and climate change.

The other great potential I see is in the ability for nuclear energy to reduce carbon in industrial processes. Residential and commercial electricity use is only about one third of our total energy use. Transportation and industrial processes represent the other two thirds of energy demand and emissions.

Q:You have attended the China international import expo and made a forum speech. Can you share your impression with us? This year in China, the third-generation nuclear technology AP1000 and EPR has been grid-connected, what’s your expectation on China’s nuclear industry?

A:The world needs to get to nearly zero greenhouse gas emissions, and I think nuclear power is going to play a crucial role in that effort. The most recent IPCC report noted that nuclear power must play a greater role if we’re going to avoid the worst effects of climate change. China’s fast-rising demand for clean energy makes it an attractive market for future new projects.

演讲全文链接:

中国在全球的影响力日益增强

——比尔盖茨在首届中国国际进口博览会上的演讲

感谢你们邀请我今天参加展览会。我很荣幸!

我总是很高兴回到中国。很难想象我之一次访问中国是在将近25年前。在这25年里,中国经历了非凡的演变。本届博览会仅是中国扮演全球领导者角色的一个例子。它展示了中国已开辟的国际贸易新渠道。

中国的增长是世界历史上最令人难以置信的进步之一。1990年,这个国家66%的人生活在极端贫困之中。在接下来的15年里,超过5亿人摆脱了极端贫困。这个国家的极端贫困率从66%下降到低于4%。尽管印度起步较晚且进展较慢,但也走了类似的道路。

我将中国和印度的发展称为“前两波脱贫浪潮”。现在我们要在世界其他地方创造第三波脱贫浪潮。

我相信中国可以成为第三波脱贫浪潮的催化剂,原因有两个:中国在全球日益增强的影响力以及其新兴的创新能力。

盖茨基金会很自豪能够与中国合作释放这个潜能,造福于中国和世界其他地区。为实现这一目标,我们正在帮助中国克服结核病、艾滋病毒/艾滋病、营养不良和贫困等中国当今面临的挑战。

同时,我们还通过利用中国在创新方面的专业知识,支持中国成为促进全球发展的更加强大合作伙伴。例如,本周晚些时候,我将在 *** 助开设“全球健康药物研发中心”总部。这是盖茨基金会,北京市 *** 和清华大学之间的合作结晶。它的独特之处在于它专注于研发针对发展中国家人群健康问题的新药。这些健康问题对发展中国家造成了不成比例的影响。我乐观地认为,研发中心将帮助我们克服全球健康面临的更大障碍之一——低收入人群无力购买,低收入人群所需药品的研究因此缺乏动力。研发中心开发的每种药物都将以能负担起的价格提供给最需要的人。

我们的基金会还与中国合作伙伴就一些我们希望能拯救生命的突破性工具上展开合作。我们与麦克奥迪公司合作开发的设备是一种使用人工智能检测血液样本中的疟疾的显微镜。疟疾是在幻灯片上诊断最难的疾病之一,但在现场测试中,这种显微镜的原型检测疟疾与人类专家一样准确。如果这个设备被验证,它可以帮助我们加快消除并有一天彻底消灭这个每年杀死近45万人的疾病。

我们还与中国制造商澳柯玛合作开发一款可以彻底改变我们提供疫苗的设备。这个设备被命名为Arktek。它是一种特殊的冷却器,不需要电力或电池,仅使用冰,并可在一个月或更长时间内将疫苗保持在适当温度以下。这使得在没有可靠电力的地方,对儿童免疫变得更加容易。到目前为止,全世界已有2000多个设备投入使用。

所有这些项目(药物研究所、显微镜和冷却器)都是我们基金会和中国合作伙伴共同努力的成果。类似的创新是帮助其他国家的人们取得像中国这样发展的关键。

中国在全球领导地位的另一个领域是能源和缓解气候变化。虽然盖茨基金会的工作不涉及这方面,但我在此领域有个人投资。和中国一样,我对核电下了大赌注。

我相信,核能在满足世界清洁能源需求方面具有巨大潜力。但如果要迅速扩大规模,我们必须解决对安全、成本、核废料和核扩散的担忧。这就是泰拉能源的使命。行波堆能解决上述这四个问题。行波堆仅靠物理定律来维护核电厂的安全性,无需操作人员或复杂的紧急冷却系统、备用发电机、电池。它采用已在中国、美国和法国等国家得到验证的当今可用技术。

每使用一吨天然铀,行波堆产生的能量比一般反应堆多30倍,并且产生的废物减少了80%。与其他电力来源不同,它产生的热量可以驱动当今依赖化石燃料的工业生产设备。行波堆不涉及浓缩和后处理,因而能防止核扩散,意味着它能安全地出口。

作为泰拉能源的创始人,我投资这项新技术来满足中国和其他国家经济高速发展的需求。泰拉能源正致力于充分发挥核能的潜力。我们已寻求合作伙伴来加速我们在能源领域所需的创新,开发新的专业知识并开发新产品。

我仍然致力于部署这一关键技术。

无论是能源、健康还是其他领域,我希望这种合作能够为未来更多的国际合作提供一种模式。通过结合来自中国和美国的人才和资源,我们可以营造创新氛围,开发改善两国及世界各地生活的产品和 *** 。

本次博览会是确认我们共同努力合作的重要机会。我祝愿你们此次活动圆满成功,并鼓励大家继续创造开发创新的解决方案,拯救生命,阻止气候变化,减少贫困。

演讲英文全文

Remarks at First China International Import Expo

Bill Gates

Thank you for inviting me to join you today. It is an honor to be here.

I am always happy to be back in China. It’s hard to imagine that my first visit was nearly 25 years ago. In that time, China has undergone a remarkable evolution. This expo is just one exle of China’s role as a global leader. It showcases the new channels for international trade that China has opened.

China’s growth is one of the most astonishing exles of progress in world history. In 1990, 66 percent of people in this country lived in extreme poverty. Over the next 15 years, more than 500 million escaped extreme poverty. The extreme poverty rate in this country has fallen from 66 percent to less than 4 percent. India has followed a similar path, although it started later and progress there has been slower.

What has happened in China and India represents what I call the first two waves of poverty reduction. Now we want to create a third wave, in the rest of the world.

I believe China can be a catalyst for this third wave, for two reasons: its increasing role around the world, and its emerging capacity for innovation.

The Gates Foundation is proud to partner with China to unlock that potential so it benefits China and the rest of the world. In working toward this goal, we are helping China overcome domestic challenges such as tuberculosis, HIV/AIDS, malnutrition, and poverty.

Meanwhile, we are also supporting China in becoming a stronger partner in global development by leveraging its expertise in innovation.

For exle, later this week I’ll be in Beijing to help open the headquarters of the Global Health Drug Discovery Institute. This is a partnership between our foundation, the government of Beijing, and Tsinghua [ching-wah University. It is unique in its focus on discovering and developing new drugs for health problems that disproportionately affect people in developing countries. I’m optimistic that the Institute will help us overcome one of the biggest obstacles in global health—the fact that there’s often no incentive to work on medicines that low-income people need, because they can’t afford to buy them. Every drug developed at the Institute will be available at an affordable price to those most in need.

Our foundation is also working with Chinese partners on some breakthrough tools that we hope will save lives. One device we’re developing with the company Motic is a microscope that uses artificial intelligence to detect malaria in a blood sle. Malaria is one of the hardest diseases to diagnose on a slide, but in field tests, a prototype of this microscope detected malaria as accurately as a human expert. If it proves out, it could help us accelerate the effort to eliminate and one day eradicate a disease that kills nearly 450,000 people a year.

We’re also working with the Chinese manufacturer Aucma on a device that could revolutionize the way we deliver vaccines. It’s called the Arktek, and it’s a special cooler that keeps vaccines at the right temperature for a month or more, using only ice—no electricity or battery needed. This makes it much easier to immunize children in places where there’s no reliable electricity. So far more than 2,000 Arkteks are in use around the world.

All of these projects—the drug institute, the microscope, and the cooler—are joint efforts between our foundation and partners here in China. Innovations like these are key to helping people in other countries make the kind of progress you’ve made here in China.

One other area where China is showing global leadership is in energy and mitigating climate change. Although the Gates Foundation doesn’t work in this area, I am investing in it personally. And—like China—I am making a big bet on nuclear power.

I believe nuclear power holds tremendous promise to meet the world’s clean-energy needs. But if it is going to scale quickly, we must address concerns about safety, cost, waste, and nuclear proliferation.

This is TerraPower’s mission.

TerraPower’s Traveling Wave Reactor deals with all four concerns. It relies on the laws of physics to maintain the safety of the plant without needing a human operator or complicated emergency cooling systems, backup generators, and batteries. It uses technology that is available today and has been proven out in countries like China, the United States, and France.

The reactor produces 30 times more energy for each ton of uranium mined, and it produces 80 percent less waste. Unlike other sources of electricity, it produces heat that can drive industrial processes that rely on fossil fuels today. Without enrichment and without reprocessing, the technology is proliferation resistant, which means the TWR can be safely exported.

As a founder of TerraPower, I set out to invest in new technology that can support the kind of economic development China and other countries want. TerraPower is working to bring nuclear energy to its full potential. We have sought partnerships to accelerate the innovation we need in the energy sector, develop new expertise, and lead to new products.

I remain committed to the deployment of this critical technology.

Conclusion

Whether it’s in energy, or health, or other areas, I hope that this kind of collaboration can provide a model for more international cooperation in the future. By combining talent and resources from China and the United States, we can build an atmosphere of innovation and develop products and approaches that improve lives in both countries and around the world.

This expo represents an important opportunity to affirm our work together. I wish you a successful event and encourage everyone here to continue creating innovative solutions that will save lives, stop climate change, and reduce poverty.

Thank you.

(本文经过泰拉能源授权刊登,特别鸣谢泰拉能源公司高级副总裁王定南、原环球创新核能技术有限公司副总裁章庆华为本次专访所付出的努力)

本文来源:2018.12.27中国核工业微信、2019.1.2中国核工业微信

比尔盖茨投资核电设备 巴菲特和比尔盖茨联手投资核电
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